Before your travel China, you'd better to know something like China history and Chinese Culture, I am sure that will make your China travel more convenient and make you better learn Chinese people. Well, it's known to all that China has a long history, as long as 5000 years. Now, I will give a bief introduction about China history. Hope that will be helpful.
Emperor Huang (Huangdi) is regarded as our Chinese people’s ancestor. He defeated the leader of the other tribe, Emperor Yan, and established the first country in China. So we Chinese often say ourselves: descendents of Yan and Huang.
After Emperor Huang, China went through 3 Dynasties, Xia Dynasty, Shang Dynasty and Zhou Dynasty. That was the initial stages of Chinese culture and civilization. And it is between 2070BC TO 770 BC.That was slavery society.
After Zhou Dynasty, China was broken up into many small countries. That was the famous Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period. It is an important period in Chinese history because the great ancient Chinese philosopher, Confucius and the strategist Sunzi , were born in this time. Their thought and words affect Chinese people throughout 2000 years history and until now. In this period, there was another great person- Emperor Qinshihuang the first person who unified the whole country, to order to build Great Wall, established the first great empire in China with the capital in today's Xi'an. If you have chance to make a Xian tour, you must visit the world famous terracotta warriors, which was the funerary art for him.
Qin Dynasty was established in 221BC. From then on, China entered into the feudal society. And the feudal system lasted more than 2000 years, until 1911, the father of the nation, Sunyason lead the revolution, overthrew the Qing Dynasty and established the Republic of China.
After Qin Dynasty, China enters to Han and Tang Dynasty. In this period, China reached the unprecedented flourish time. The prosperity of Tang Dynasty made Chinese culture and civilization broadcast to Japan, Korean, and Southeast Asia, finally formed the brilliant East Asia Civilization. In Tang Dynasty, many Japanese scholars come to learn Chinese character, culture and technique, and bring them back. That’s why many Japanese characters are same or similar to Chinese characters, and also you can find the culture similar in some way.
After Tang Dynasty, China was broken up again. In that period, there were several states existed in the territory in the same time. Later, one of the states-Mongolian tribe conquered the whole country, established Yuan Dynasty. The famous leader, Genghis Khan, is the founder of Yuan Dynasty. Many foreigners regarded him as the counterpart to Napoleon, the famous Emperor and General in Europe. Beijing became the national capital just from Yuan Dynasty. The famous local residential areas-Hutongs were build in Yuan Dynasty.
In the late of Yuan, Han people established Ming Dynasty, the famous forbidden City, the Temple of Heaven, and the shape of the Beijing Old city were all formed in Ming Dynasty. The Great Wall in Beijing area is also built in Ming Dynasty.
In the late of Ming Dynasty, Manchuness established the latest dynasty in China, Qing Dynasty. In the end of Qing Dynasty, China went to the worst period when the feudal officials were corruptive, the life of people was suffering, and the country was weak and unstable. Besides, they also had to face the invading of alien armies. Until 1911, Dc. Sun Yat-son lead the revolution, overthrows the Qing Dynasty, ended the feudal society in China, and established the Republic of China and the party of Guomintang. Later China suffered 8 years war against Japanese Army, then 3 years inner war between Guomintang and Communist Party. In End, the Communist Party succeeded and established the People’s Republic of China. That is the present China, while Guomintang went to the Taiwan province